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The Human Resource Development Department provides various types of business process design, training and organizational development services. Business process design services helps clients map out and/or re-engineer key tasks, procedures, jobs and core end-to-end business processes. Mapping out the major responisibilities, duties, tasks and task-elements of a particular job is referred to as a job task analysis. An accurate and well organized job task analysis is often required to provide effective job-specific training. Mapping out and re-engineering key tasks, procedures and end-to-end business processes, so that they represent the 'should-be' process (best practice), is often required to provide effective task or process specific training. In addition to creating a foundation for effective task specific training, the mapping of key tasks and processes is useful for identifying the technology and other task execution aids required to support job, group and organizational performance. An organization with a complete set of accurate, sufficiently detailed and effective job task analyses and key process maps, has the ability to work on and improve its network of processes in a more organized, efficient and effective manner (continuous process improvement). In order to view a presentation of why and how a particular manager might use business process design services please click here. Managers can submit a request for business process design services by selecting the request for services menu at the top of the page.

Training services focus on providing internal and various external stakeholders with the competencies necessary to perform particular tasks both now and in the future. Training services help employees, groups, departments, the entire organization and/or a network of organizations develop the pyramid of competencies necessary to perform job related tasks both now and in the future. In order to view a presentation on the need for a pyramid of competencies to support task performance please click here. Training also helps various external stakeholders like customers, suppliers and partner organizations perform particular tasks. Providing customers with product and service usage training may be essential for securing sales in an increasingly competitive market. Access to training is also a powerful incentive for joining an organization and can be used as a form of indirect compensation to help increase motivation, commitment and satisfaction. Training services that assist employees with key life tasks like financial management will help to lower stress and improve quality of life. Managers can submit a request for training services by selecting the request for services menu at the top of the page.

Organizational development services focus on developing organizational capacity and health at various levels (individual, inter-personal, group, inter-group, organizational and inter-organizational) and helping the organization manage change effectively. Although training is a fundamental part of organizational development and change, we treat training as a distinct function given its level of importance. As a result, organizational development services will mostly refer to interventions at various levels within the organization that don't involve traditional methods of training, and typically involve more direct intervention into the targeted part of the organization.  For example you could provide employees with training on managing conflict but you could also request an OD intervention to deal with enduring and destructive conflict between particular employees. In order to view a presentation of why and how a particular manager might use organizational development services please click here. In addition to interventions that target various levels of the organization, the OD services provided include two fundamental processes that are embedded within the general intervention process (see below). Structured problem solving (gap analysis) and performance assessment are two essential tools for improving performance and health through out the organization. In order to view a presentation of why and how a particular manager might use structured problem solving please click here. In order to view a presentation of how managers can use the performance assessment process please click here. Managers can submit a request for OD services by clicking the request for services menu at the top of the page. Managers have the option of bundling business process design, training and OD services together in order to meet their process management, training and organizational development needs.


The provision of services typically involves the following 7 steps that make up the intervention cycle (for a more in depth review of these steps, click on the links below or click on any of the boxes in the diagram):

  • Needs Assessment (identifies needed competencies)
  • Impact Assessment (impact assessment identifies the expected impacts on behavior, organizational processes and key performance indicators that will result from delivering particular HRD services)
  • Gap and/or Outcome Driver Analysis (gap analysis is conducted when the causes of performance gaps in KPIs need to be identified, and outcome driver analysis is conducted when the drivers required to achieve a particular outcome or state need to be identified)
  • Design the Intervention (once the key requirements for addressing a gap and/or achieving a particular outcome have been identified, the HRD components of the solution need to be identified and prepared for delivery)
  • Implement (this involves delivery of the designed services)
  • Evaluate (once the services have been delivered they need to evaluated)
  • Update (this involves improving the efficiency and effectiveness of HRD services based on information from the evaluation)


  • Job Task Analysis (deconstructing core job responsibilities into duties, tasks and task-elements, and documenting the information in an organized manner e.g. deconstructing the job content for a seamstress in a textile factory)
  • Mapping of critical, complex and challenging job tasks (mapping out the sequential steps, decision points and contingencies of critical job tasks that require more intensive deconstruction e.g. handling highly toxic materials while performing a job)
  • Mapping of important and/or high usage group, department and organizational procedures (mapping out the sequential steps, decision points and contingencies of important and/or high usage procedures within the organization e.g. annual budgeting process or submitting a request for time off)
  • Mapping of core business processes (mapping out the sequential steps, decision points and contingencies of tasks that cut across multiple job categories, groups and organiztions e.g. the end to end manufacturing process within a textile factory)
  • Reviewing and re-engineering key tasks, procedures and core end-to-end processes (conducting a process audit for the purpose of identifying execution problems and/or continuously improving the process)


The process of determining what type of training service to deliver is complex given the numerous options avaliable. In order to identify the correct training solution, the following features of the training situation need to be identified:

  • What are the Targeted Activities (e.g. entire job, particular tasks that fall within a job or a business process the cuts across multiple jobs)
  • What are the Targeted Competencies (e.g. job specific competency, performance supporting values and beliefs, general work related competencies, basic life skills, self esteem, self efficacy and self differentiation, cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence etc)
  • What are the Targeted Levels (e.g. individual, inter-personal, group, inter-group, organizational, inter-organizational, relationships with external stakeholders etc)
  • What are the Types of Learners (e.g. particular individuals, intact teams of employees performing the same job, random employees from across the organization, employees from multiple departments who participate in the same end to end business process, employees from a particular geographic location)
  • What is the Targeted Stage in the Learning Path (e.g. pre-formal training, formal intensive training, on-the-job mentoring, follow up training etc)
  • What is the Type of Leadership (training process led by an instructor or facilitator, led by the materials, led by the learners etc)
  • What is the Type of Content (e.g. prescriptive content that tells the learners how to do something or emergent content whereby the learners generate the content themselves, or somewhere in between)
  • What is the Content Location (e.g. training provided by a subject matter expert without any supporting materials (content is located internally within the subject matter expert) or the training process is extensively or exclusively supported by training materials (content has been captured in some external media), or somewhere in between)
  • What is the Nature of the Interaction between Training Process and Learner with regards to Time, Place, Pace and Sequence (e.g. live event in which the learners are physically co-located, live event in which learners are geographically dispersed and interact via video-conference, training process using printed manuals that the learner completes at their own time, pace and location; training process using computer based content that allows the learner to take different paths through the content )
  • What are the Methods of Communication within the Training Process
    • Communicating Training Content to Participants (e.g. live interaction, paper based text and static images, audio tapes, video tape, CD, DVD, computer based text, images, audio and video)
    • Communication between Trainer and Trainees
    • Communication between Trainees (e.g. live interaction, on-line chat, teleconference, pre-designed print, static images, recorded audio, video etc)
  • Methods used for Demonstration, Practice and Coaching (e.g. on-the-job, case studies, role plays, off-the-job work samples, simulations etc)
  • Methods of Testing Leaners and Evaluating success of the Training Intervention


An organizational activity is an event in which human effort, technology (tools, equipment and machinery) or both is used to complete a sequence of actions for the purpose of achieving a particular outcome.
Targeted activities include:

  • Product and Service Usage (provide employees with knowledge about the products and services offered by the organization or provide customers with product usage manuals or on-line training on how to use a particular product they purchased)
  • Jobs ( training that targets a particular job or category of jobs)
  • Job Tasks that do not require significant involvement of employees performing other jobs (training that targets particular tasks within a job)
  • Job Tasks that require significant involvement of employees performing other jobs (training the targets particular tasks and the various task stakeholders)
  • Projects (training that targets a particular project e.g. providing all members of a project team with training on using microsoft project)
  • Business Process(es) that cut across multiple jobs within the organization (e.g. training on a core end-to-end production process that cuts across multiple jobs)
  • Business Process(es) that cut across multiple organizations (e.g. training on a procurement process involving employees from different organizations)

    return to types of training services


A competency is the collection of knowledge, skill, experience and other personal characteristics that predicts effective performance of a particular task(s).

Targeted competencies include:

  • Job specific knowledge and skills (the following competencies are all specific to a particular job and are there a part of job-specific skills)
    • Declarative knowledge (knowledge about the job)
    • Procedural knowledge (knowing the sequential steps and linkages between work processes that produces successful outcomes)
    • Task Integration competencies (being able to execute the sequential task elements and manage the linkages between parallel job tasks - requires declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and experience with executing the tasks within a job)
    • Desktop management competencies (develop a system for effectively receiving, processing, storing, and using the information necessary to execute job tasks effectively)
    • Product and service usage competencies (knowing about the products and services offered by the organization and knowing how to use the products and services)
    • Technological competencies (using the required tools, equipment and machinery necessary to perform job-specific tasks)
    • Compliance competencies (being able to execute job tasks in a manner that complies with key laws, policies, regulations and rules)
    • Cognitive competencies (effective thinking processes for performing job-specific tasks)
    • Emotional competencies (effective management of emotions typically arosed by job-specific tasks)
    • Physical competencies (effective execution of physical actions required to perform job-specific tasks)
    • Inter-personal competencies (effectively manage the inter-personal dynamics involved in executing job-specific tasks)
    • Team work competencies (effectively participate within and manage team dynamics arising out of performing job-specific tasks)
    • Creative and innovative competencies (ability to creatively address contingencies in the process of executing job-specific tasks)
    • Taking direction and taking initiative competencies (ability to take direction and take personal initiative with regard to executing job-specific tasks)
    • Support seeking competencies (ability to seek and take advantage of assistance available for executing job-specific tasks)
    • Ethical competencies (ability to identify and resolve ethical dilemmas arising out of performing the job-specific tasks)
  • Beliefs and values that support job-specific performance (particular beliefs about what things are and how things relate to each other plus values about what is good/bad or right/wrong with regard to particular aspects of the job makes up our attitudes toward our job e.g. a claims adjudicator's beliefs about claimants and how to go about ensuring the legitimacy of claims plus their values regarding people asking for compensation for injuries has an influence on their performance)
  • General work related competencies (these are general competencies that refer to general work tasks like running effective meetings that apply to a wide variety of jobs and support the performing of job specific tasks)
  • General work task competencies ( e.g. running effective meetings, time management, managing a project, giving an effective presentation, general desktop management skills etc)
    • General work related technological competencies (e.g. using a photocopier; MS word, powerpoint, excel and outlook etc)
    • General work related cognitive and emotional competencies (e.g. problem solving, decision making, managing difficult feelings toward authority figures etc)
    • General interpersonal and team work competencies (e.g. managing negativity in the workplace, managing hostile employees, developing a positive relationship with your boss, working in a project team etc)
    • General special issue and compliance competencies (e.g. sexual harrasment in the workplace, managing diversity, privacy requirements etc)
  • Basic Life skills (e.g. expressing yourself appropriately, listening, being assertive, managing conflict, managing stress, managing your finances etc)
  • Three Rs (basic reading, writing and math skills)
  • Psychological and physiological readiness (e.g. self esteem, self efficacy, self differentiation; physical, emotional and cognitive health)
  • Basic intelligence and capacity (e.g. intellectual capacity (IQ), emotional capacity (EQ), social capacity (SQ), physical capacity (PQ)) - some of these competencies are difficulty to change (intellectual intelligence) while others are more malleable and can therefore be targeted by training and development interventions (e.g. emotional intelligence) - effective selection procedures are required to ensure that employees have the capacity to perform their particular job

    return to types of training services


Targeted levels include:

  • Individuals (target the unique needs of individual internal and external stakeholders that cannot be addressed in a group format)
  • Inter-personal dynamics (focus on the relations and co-ordination between particular dyads)
  • Teams and groups (provide training services to groups of internal stakeholders, combinations of internal and external stakeholders or particular external stakeholders like customers and suppliers) - grouping can be based on:
    • Intact teams (production, staff, project, multidisciplinary etc)
    • Learners with a common need (non intact) (e.g. trainining for all employees who need to be able to use the budgeting and accounting software program)
    • Intact parts of the organization structure (e.g. departments, divisions etc)
    • Stakeholders in a particular Business Process (e.g. all the internal and external stakeholders who participate in a particular business process)
  • Inter-group dynamics (focus on the relations and co-ordination between groups)
  • Organization as a whole (target the entire organization or most of the organization)
  • Inter-organizational dynamics (focus on the relations and co-ordination between our own organization and other organizations)

    return to types of training services


Targeted types of learners include:

  • Internal Stakeholders (this refers to all members of the organization)
    • Non-management employees (line and staff)
    • Non-management professional employees (line and staff)
    • Supervisors (line and staff)
    • Managers (line and staff)
    • Executives (line and staff)
  • External Stakeholders (this refers to learners who are not members of the organization but interact with the organization in some way or possess the need for similar types of training services)


Learners seldom reach full productivity as a result of a single training event.  The attainment of full productivity usually arises out of multiple learning experiences that are more effective when properly organized.  Learning typically follows both a curve and a path.  The path refers to the sequential learning experiences that bring a learner to full productivity and the learning experiences that help to maintain and improve their performance.

Targeted stage(s) in the learning path includes:

  • Pre-entry Training (prior to entering a particular job, employees are typically expected to have certain types of education and training)
  • Entry training (primary) (this is training that supports an employee entering the job and attaining the capacity to perform the job)
    • Orientation (provides the necessary introduction to the organization, department, boss, co-workers and job)
    • Pre-formal intensive training (prior to formal intensive training, new employees may spend some time performing reduced duties and engaging in various learning activities (e.g. partnered with a mentor, job shadow, selective projects, complete training experiences that can be done as an individual, attend available training programs that related to certain aspects of the job, attend available training on general work related competencies etc)
    • Formal intensive training (this is an intense period of formalized training that expedites providing an employee with the bulk of the knowledge and skill that they will need in order to execute their job successfully - a period of dedicated training typically given to a group of employees who will be performing the same or similar job)
    • Post-formal intensive training (after the formal intensive training, a period of on-the-job training typically takes place where the employee is given progressive duties with close supervision and coaching until they are capable to performing all job tasks at the required standards)
  • Post-entry training (secondary) (this is selective training that takes place after entry training - the purpose of this training is to reinforce perishable skills and addresses omissions, insufficient detail or errors in the primary training process)
    • Follow up training (training that follows up on primary training for the purpose of addressing omissions, lack of detail or errors in the primary training process)
    • Refresher training (training that prevents the degradation in perishable skills)
  • Upgrade training (this is training that informs employees about changes made to their job tasks - such changes can arise out of re-engineering job processes due to process related performance problems, processes adjustments arising out of continuous process improvement initiatives and fundamental strategic shifts that influences job content)
  • Person oriented training while on the job (training that arises out of the person oriented performance management system and targets the unique needs to the individual employee – typically occurs after primary training)
    • Regular performance improvement needs (training that arises out of the need to address skills gaps identified in an employee’s regular performance improvement plan)
    • Urgent performance support (training that addresses an urgent performance problem that cannot be postponed until it is addressed as part of the regular performance management cycle)
    • Incentive training (training that typically targets general work related competencies and life skills as a form of indirect compensation (benefit) for the purpose of (1) increasing the general capacity of employees, (2) providing them with the opportunity to seek more advanced employment opportunities, and (3) improving the commitment, motivation, satisfaction and retention of valued employees)
    • Employees targeted for leadership, promotion and special duties (training for those employees who are targeted for leadership roles, promotion to more advanced positions, and special duties)

      return to types of training services


Leadership in the training process refers to the source of guidance for the learner that assists him/her achieve the learning objectives

  • Instructor Led (this occurs when an instructor is appointed to direct the learners in a relatively pre-defined manner)
  • Facilitated (this occurs when a person is appointed to facilitate the learning process which can at times be co-led by the participants)
  • Co-Led (this occurs when a person is appointed as a facilitator but only for the purpose of helping to establish co-leadership norms with the participants)
  • Materials Led (this occurs when the training materials themselves are structured in such a manner that they provided leadership for the learning process)
  • Learner Led (this occurs when the learners are given the responsibility of leading themselves through the learning process)

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This refers to whether the content of the training process is prescriptive, emergent or somewhere in between.  Prescription occurs when the content of the training process is pre-defined and then prescribed to the learners.  The learners are essentially told how to do something.  Emergent training occurs when the content of the training process emerges out of the interaction between the trainer and the learners, and/or out of the interaction between the learners.

  • Prescriptive (content of the training process is pre-defined and taught to the learners – typically applies to teaching learners formalized and standardized processes)
  • Emergent (content of the training process emerges out of interaction between the trainer and the learners and/or out of interaction between the learners)
  • Blended (some content is prescribed and some emerges out of the interaction of the participants)

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Content storage refers to where the critical information that constitutes the essential content of the process is stored.

  • Subject matter expert (the necessary information is stored within a subject matter expert(s)
  • External storage (the necessary information is stored outside of the subject matter experts in some form (print, audio, video, computer based etc)
  • Blended storage (some of the vital information is resident within a particular subject matter expert(s) and some is captured, organized and stored externally)

    return to types of training services

  • Fixed vs restricted vs flexible time (fixed means the training takes place at a fixed time, flexible means that the learner can take the training whenever they want, and restricted means that there is a fixed interval within which the training must be taken by the learner)
  • Co-located vs mixed vs geographically dispersed (co-located means that the learners are physically located together, geographically dispersed means they are not, and mixed means some learners are physically together and others are not)
  • Fixed vs mixed vs flexible learning path (sequence) (fixed means that the sequence of the training process and content is predesigned and prescribed, flexible means that the learner can take multiple paths through the learning process and is free to choose their own preferred path, and mixed means some sequencing is fixed and some is flexible)

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Methods of communication refers to the way in which the training content is communicated to the participants and the methods that the trainer and trainees used to communicate with one another

    • Communicating Training Content to Participants
      • Live interaction between physically co-located participants
      • Interaction between geographically separated participants
        • Online chat
        • Tele-conference
        • Video-conference
        • Webinar
      • Paper based print and static images
      • Audio tapes, video tapes, CD and DVD
      • Computer based text, static images, animations, audio and video
    • Communication between Trainer and Trainees
      • Real time face to face interaction between physically co-located trainer and trainees
      • Real time interaction between geographically separated trainer and trainees
        • Online chat
        • Tele-conference - telephone
        • Video-conference
        • Webinar
      • Delayed interaction between trainer and trainees
        • Paper based mail, mail drop box, fax
        • Instant messaging
        • e-mail and attachments
        • voicemail
        • text message
    • Communication between Trainees
      • Real time face to face interaction between physically co-located trainer and trainees
      • Real time interaction between geographically separated trainer and trainees
        • Online chat
        • Tele-conference
        • Video-conference
        • Webinar
      • Delayed interaction between trainer and trainees